Investigating Relationship between Tourism, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth in Brazil: An Application of the Causality Toda &Yamamoto

دراسة العلاقة بين السياحة، انبعاثات ثاني أكسيد الكربون والنمو الاقتصادي في البرازيل: تطبيق سببية Yamamoto & Toda



Tourism sector, CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth, Brazilian Economy


The study aimed to test the causal relationship between tourism, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil during the period (1995-2018), using the Granger causality proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The study concluded that there is a long-term, unidirectional linear causality extending from carbon dioxide emissions to tourism, to economic growth, and the existence of a long-term, bidirectional linear causality between economic growth and tourism in Brazil.


Download data is not yet available.


SR, Alam, Paramati, and Chen, CF MS. (2017). The Effects of Tourism on Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: A Comparison between Developed and Developing Economies. Journal of Travel Research, 56 (6), 712-724.

Zha, J He, and H. A Loo. (2020). How to improve tourism energy efficiency to achieve sustainable tourism: Evidence from China. Current Issues in Tourism,23(1), 1-16.

A. Lanza, P. Temple and G. Urga. (2003). The Implications of Tourism Specialisation in the Long Run: an Econometric Analysis for 13 OECD Economies. Tourism Management, 24, 315-321.

A. Sharif S. Afshan, N. Nisha. (2017). Impact of tourism on CO2 emission: Evidence from Pakistan. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(4), 408-421.

AHMAD Waheed, Tariq Muhammad MAJEED, Ayesha NAZ، Zubaria ANDLIB, TANVEER. (2020). Tourism and CO2 Emissions: A Case Study of Selected South Asian Countries. Journal of Business, Economics and Environmental Studies,10(4), 27-21.

Akadir S. Saint, AA. Alola and AC. Akadir. (2019). The role of globalization, real income, tourism in environmental sustainability target. Evidence from Turkey. Science of the total environment, 687, 423-432.

Ali Wajahat, Abdullah Azrai and Muhammad Azam. (2017). Re-visiting the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for Malaysia: fresh evidence from ARDL bounds testing approach. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,77, 990-1000.

AS. Goudie and HA. Viles. (1997). The earth transformed: an introduction to human impacts on the environment. United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons Ltd: Oxford.

B. Saboori and J. Sulaiman. (2013). Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia. Energy policy, 60, 892-905.

CC. Lee and CP. Chang. (2008). Tourism development and economic growth: a closer look at panels. Tourism Management, 29(1), 180-192.

E Dogan and A Aslan. (2017). Exploring The Relationship Among CO2 Emissions, Real GDP, Energy Consumption and Tourism in The EU and Candidate Countries:Evidence from Panel Models Robust to Heterogeneity and Cross-sectional Dependence. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 77, 239-245.

E. Balli, C Sigeze, M. Manga, S. Birdir and K. Birdir. (2019). The Relationship Between Tourism, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth: a Case of Mediterranean Countries. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Resear, 24(3), 219-323.

H Liu، L. Wu and X Li. (2019). Social Media Envy: How to Experience Sharing on Social Networking Sites Drives Millennials' Aspirational Tourism Consumption. Journal of Travel Research, 58(3), 355-369.

H. Shi, X. Li, H. Zhang, X. Liu, T. Li and Z. Zhong. (2019). Global difference in the relationships between tourism, economic growth, CO2 emissions, and primary energy consumption. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-16.

Irfan Ullah, Alam Rehman, Libuse Svobodova, Ahsan Akbar, Haroon Muhammad Shah, Muhammad Zeeshan and Abdur Mubeen Rehman. (2022). Investigating Relationships Between Tourism, Economic Growth, and CO2 Emissions in Brazil: An Application of the Nonlinear ARDL Approach. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10(843906) 1-10.

JI. Pulido and Y. López. (2011). Tourism: Analysis of a Global Phenomenon from a Perspective of Sustainability. The Systemic Dimension of Globalization, Croatia, 267-288.

K. Eyuboglu and r, U Uzar. (2020). The Impact of Tourism on CO2 Emission in Turkey. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(11), 1631-1645.

M. Meng and D. Niu. (2011). Modeling CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion using the logistic equation. Energy, 36(5), 3355-3359.

Marinela Nižić Krstinić,Šverko Zvonimira Grdić and Andreja Hustić (2017). The Importance of Energy for Tourism Sector. Academica Turistica-Tourism and Innovation Journal, 9(2).

S Imran, K Alam and N Beaumont. (2014). Environmental orientations and environmental behaviour: Perceptions of protected area tourism stakeholders. Tourism Management 40, 290-299.

S Roudi,H Arasli and S. S Akadiri. (2019). New Insights Into an Old Issue–Examining The Influence of Tourism on Economic Growth: Evidence from Selected Small Island Developing States. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(11), 1280-1300.

S. Gossling. (2002). Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global Environmental Change, 12(4), 283-302.

S. R Paramati, M. S Alam and C. K. M. Lau. (2018). The effect of tourism investment on tourism development and CO2 emissions: empirical evidence from the EU nations. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(9), 1587-1607.

Y. Liu, T. Kumail, W. Ali and F. Sadiq. (2019). The dynamic relationship between CO2 emission, international tourism and energy consumption in Pakistan: a cointegration approach. Tourism Review, 74(4), 761-779.

Y. Zhang, S. A. R. Khan, A. Kumar and H. Golpîra. (2019). Is tourism really affected by logistical operations and environmental degradation? An empirical study from the perspective of Thailand. Journal of Cleaner Production, 227, 158-166.

Zubaria Andlib and Julio Salcedo Castro. (2021). The Impacts of Tourism and Governance on CO2 Emissions in Selected South Asian Countries. Etikonomi, 20(2), 385-396



How to Cite

سراج و. ., شقاليل إ., & براهيمي ك. (2022). Investigating Relationship between Tourism, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth in Brazil: An Application of the Causality Toda &Yamamoto: دراسة العلاقة بين السياحة، انبعاثات ثاني أكسيد الكربون والنمو الاقتصادي في البرازيل: تطبيق سببية Yamamoto & Toda . JOURNAL OF AL MAYADINE AL IKTISSADIA , 5(1), 106-89. Retrieved from